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Applied Geology and Geochemistry

Christian Johnson

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

A chemical engineer by training, Mr. Johnson has performed a wide variety of research and development at PNNL since 1992 in the field of environmental restoration/remediation technology. His work includes design and implementation of in situ and ex situ bioremediation systems for treatment of chlorinated solvent and hydrocarbon contamination at U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Defense (Air Force, Navy, and Army), and private industry sites (including a Superfund National Priorities List site). In addition, Mr. Johnson has a long history of software development for environmental applications, including the RT3D code (a multi-species reactive transport simulation software), the Vapor Intrusion Estimation Tool for Unsaturated-zone Sources (VIETUS), the Soil Vapor Extraction Endstate Tool (SVEET), and the Plume Analysis Tool (PLATO) module of the SOCRATES (Suite Of Comprehensive Rapid Analysis Tools for Environmental Sites) single-page web application. Mr. Johnson has also co-authored many technical reports and journal articles, including guidance documents for assessing whether a soil vapor extraction remedy or pump-and-treat remedy should be closed, optimized, or transitioned to a new remedy.

Mr. Johnson has a broad range of other environmental remediation experience, as well as experience with a variety non-remediation projects. He has conducted technology assessments and design for iodine-129 groundwater remediation, vadose zone desiccation barrier technology, characterization and treatment of both uranium metal chips in contaminated oil and zircaloy metal chips, field-portable analysis of metals in soils, in situ bioremediation treatment of PAH-contaminated sediment in a wetland area, biotreatment of wastewater contaminated with acrylonitrile/cyanide/nitrophenol, and treatment of water contaminated with pathogenic protozoa (e.g., Giardia, Cryptosporidium) using glow discharge plasma. Mr. Johnson's non-remediation experience includes study of gas retention and release in pulse jet mixer tanks containing non-Newtonian fluid, fabrication of ceramic pellets, application of a hydrological uncertainty methodology to nuclear reactor sites, and neutron dosimetry.

Mr. Johnson has developed a number of software calculation tools using JavaScript, Fortran, Visual Basic, Excel, and/or Access, including the aforementioned RT3D and SVEET, as well as tools for ICP-OES analytical data analysis, conformance calculations for lithium-aluminate pellets, neutron dosimetry calculations (STAYSL PNNL), six-phase soil heating system design, assessing effectiveness of over 100 remediation technologies in logical treatment train configurations (RAAS), and Tank Characterization Database data manipulation.

Research Interests

  • Environmental Restoration (bioremediation, monitored natural attenuation, and other technologies)
  • Remediation technology development
  • Mathematical Modelling and Simulation (including groundwater/reactive transport modelling)
  • Data Analysis
  • Software development (simulators & calculation tools)

Education and Credentials

  • M.S., Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, 1999
  • B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, 1992

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • OSHA 40 Hours Hazardous Waste Site Worker with Field Experience
  • Hazardous Waste Site Supervisor
  • Engineer-in-Training

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2016 PNNL Fitzner-Eberhardt Award for Outstanding Contributions to Science and Engineering Education
  • Battelle 2014 Community Spirit Award
  • Outstanding Performance Awards - 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2013
  • Federal Laboratory Consortium, Reactive Transport Transfer Efforts for RT3D - 1999
  • Battelle Software Creator Award, Remedial Action Assessment System - 1997

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Greenwood L.R., B.D. Pierson, and C.D. Johnson. 2018. "Enhancement of STAYSL_PNNL with IRDFF/V1.05 to 60 MeV." In 16th International Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry, edited by M. H. Sparks, K. R. DePriest, and D. W. Vehar, STP1608-EB, 265-275. West Conshohock, Pennsylvania:ASTM International. PNNL-SA-125878. doi:10.1520/STP160820170054
  • Truex M.J., G.B. Chronister, C.E. Strickland, C.D. Johnson, G.D. Tartakovsky, M. Oostrom, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2018. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report. PNNL-26902. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report
  • Yonkofski C., D. Appriou, X. Song, J.L. Downs, C.D. Johnson, and V.C. Milbrath. 2018. Water Application for Dust Control in the Central Plateau: Impacts, Alternatives, and Work Strategies. PNNL-28061. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Water Application for Dust Control in the Central Plateau: Impacts, Alternatives, and Work Strategies

2017

2016

  • Truex M.J., and C.D. Johnson. 2016. Approach for Pump-and-Treat Performance Assessment at the Hanford Site. PNNL-25875. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2015

2014

  • Oostrom M., M.J. Truex, A.K. Rice, C.D. Johnson, K.C. Carroll, D. Becker, and M.A. Simon. 2014. "Estimating the Impact of Vadose Zone Sources on Groundwater to Support Performance Assessment of Soil Vapor Extraction." Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 34, no. 2:71-84. PNNL-SA-90992.
  • Oostrom M., M.J. Truex, A.K. Rice, C.D. Johnson, K.C. Carroll, D. Becker, and M.A. Simon. 2014. "Estimating the Impact of Vadose Zone Sources on Groundwater to Support Performance Assessment of Soil Vapor Extraction." Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 34, no. 2:71-84. PNNL-SA-93903.
  • Truex M.J., C.E. Strickland, C.D. Johnson, T.C. Johnson, R.E. Clayton, and G.B. Chronister. 2014. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014. PNNL-23731. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

2013

2012

  • Truex M.J., M. Oostrom, C.E. Strickland, G.B. Chronister, M.W. Benecke, and C.D. Johnson. 2012. "Field-Scale Assessment of Desiccation Implementation for Deep Vadose Zone Contaminants." Vadose Zone Journal 11, no. 4. PNNL-SA-83775. doi:10.2136/vzj2011.0144
  • Truex M.J., M. Oostrom, C.E. Strickland, T.C. Johnson, V.L. Freedman, C.D. Johnson, and W.J. Greenwood, et al. 2012. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results. PNNL-21369. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results
  • Truex M.J., V.R. Vermeul, B.G. Fritz, R.D. Mackley, J.A. Horner, C.D. Johnson, and D.R. Newcomer. 2012. Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site. PNNL-21845; RPT-DVZ-AFRI-005. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Flux to Groundwater at the 100-C-7:1 Excavation Site

2009

  • Truex M.J., V.R. Vermeul, B.G. Fritz, R.D. Mackley, D.P. Mendoza, R.P. Elmore, and A.V. Mitroshkov, et al. 2009. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results. PNNL-18784. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

2008

2007

2006

2004

  • Yantasee W., Y. Lin, G.E. Fryxell, K.L. Alford, B.J. Busche, and C.D. Johnson. 2004. "Selective Removal of Copper(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Fine-Grained Activated Carbon Functionalized with Amine." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 43, no. 11:2759-2764. PNNL-SA-38034.

2001

2000

  • Clement T.P., C.D. Johnson, Y. Sun, G.M. Klecka, and C. Bartlett. 2000. "Natural attenuation of chlorinated ethene compounds: model development and field-scale application at the Dover site." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 42, no. 2-4:113-140. PNNL-SA-31638.

1999

  • Clement P., C.D. Johnson, Y. Sun, G.M. Klecka, and C. Bartlett. 1999. "Modeling natural attenuation of chlorinated solvent plumes at the Dover Air Force Base Area-6 site." In Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Compounds, The Fifth International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium, edited by B.C. Alleman and A. Leeson, 29-34. Columbus, Ohio:Battelle Press. PNNL-SA-31637.
  • Last G.V., L.M. Bagaasen, T.J. Gilmore, N.P. Kohn, C.D. Johnson, D.C. Lanigan, and T.L. Liikala, et al. 1999. Surface Water-Sediment Feasibility Study Report for the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, Stockton, California. PNNL-11931. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Surface Water-Sediment Feasibility Study Report for the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, Stockton, California

Subsurface Science & Technology