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Applied Geology and Geochemistry

Christopher Brown

Christopher Brown

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Dr. Brown is PNNL's lead for the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program. In this role, he manages and directs the work of ten researchers who are developing the science-based tools needed to assess risk at CO2 storage sites. Throughout his career, Dr. Brown has managed complex first-of their-kind field projects, including PNNL’s role as the subsurface lead on the FutureGen 2.0 Project and the Basalt CO2 Sequestration Pilot Project (Deputy Project Manager) within the Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Early in his career, Dr. Brown developed and tested waste forms for immobilization of Hanford's high- and low-activity waste, developed conceptual models for Hanford's waste sites and operable units, and developed risk-based alternatives for tank retrieval and closure. Since 2015, he has been using the Environmental Science & Technology group’s ultra-trace mass spectrometry capabilities to better understand deep subsurface transport of fluids, apportion source terms for subsurface contamination and remediation, and develop new signatures of human impact on the environment. Dr. Brown currently manages a research portfolio of approximately 3.5 million dollars per year across several applied program areas, including DOE Fossil Energy, DOE Environmental Management, and the National Nuclear Security Administration.

Research Interests

  • Understanding risks associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide
  • Developing new technologies in support of geothermal energy and unconventional resource development
  • Developing new signatures to evaluate environmental processes and impacts
  • Source term apportionment for environmental remediation activities

Education and Credentials

  • Ph.D., Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Washington State University
  • M.S., Environmental Engineering, Washington State University
  • B.A., Environmental Geology, University of Montana

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • American Chemical Society
  • American Geophysical Union
  • American Society of Civil Engineering

Awards and Recognitions

  • R&D 100 Award for development of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Toolset (2017)
  • Exceptional Contribution Award, PNNL (2015, 2016, 2017)
  • Outstanding Performance Award, PNNL (2000, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2015, 2016, 2018)
  • Outstanding Performance Award, US DOE Office of Environmental Management (2007, 2008)
  • Outstanding Mentor Award, US DOE Office of Science (2006)

PNNL Publications

2018

  • Bagwell C.E., A.R. Lawter, K.J. Cantrell, and C.F. Brown. 2018. Evaluation of Central Plateau Remediation Alternatives: Interim Status Report. PNNL-28055. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Evaluation of Central Plateau Remediation Alternatives: Interim Status Report
  • Lawter A.R., N. Qafoku, R.M. Asmussen, R.K. Kukkadapu, O. Qafoku, D.H. Bacon, and C.F. Brown. 2018. "Element mobilization and immobilization from carbonate rocks between CO2 storage reservoirs and the overlying aquifers during a potential CO2 leakage." Chemosphere 197. PNNL-SA-125304. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.199
  • Saslow S.A., A.R. Lawter, B.N. Gartman, Z. Zhang, M. Snyder, L. Zhong, and K.J. Cantrell, et al. 2018. Evaluation of Perched Water Post-Extraction Remedy Technologies: Interim Status Report. PNNL-28054. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Evaluation of Perched Water Post-Extraction Remedy Technologies: Interim Status Report
  • Szecsody J.E., C.I. Pearce, K.J. Cantrell, N. Qafoku, G. Wang, E.C. Gillispie, and A.R. Lawter, et al. 2018. Evaluation of Remediation Technologies for Iodine-129: FY18 Bench Scale Results. PNNL-28064. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Evaluation of Remediation Technologies for Iodine-129: FY18 Bench Scale Results

2017

  • Qafoku N., A.R. Lawter, D.H. Bacon, L. Zheng, J.E. Kyle, and C.F. Brown. 2017. "Review of the Impacts of Leaking CO2 Gas and Brine on Groundwater Quality"." Earth - Science Reviews 169. PNNL-SA-119041. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.04.010
  • Um W., K.A. Rod, H. Jung, and C.F. Brown. 2017. "Geochemical Alteration of Wellbore Cement by CO2 or CO2+H2S Reaction During Long-Term Carbon Storage." Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology 7, no. 5:852-865. PNNL-SA-114327. doi:10.1002/ghg.1595
  • Yonkofski C., C.L. Davidson, L.R. Rodriguez, E.A. Porter, S.R. Bender, and C.F. Brown. 2017. "Optimized, budget-constrained monitoring well placement using DREAM." Energy Procedia 114. PNNL-SA-121523. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1496

2016

  • Bacon D.H., N. Qafoku, Z. Dai, E. Keating, and C.F. Brown. 2016. "Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44, no. 2016:290-299. PNNL-SA-105184. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.04.008
  • Gilmore T.J., A.H. Bonneville, E.C. Sullivan, M.E. Kelley, D. Appriou, V.R. Vermeul, and S.K. White, et al. 2016. "Characterization and Design of the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Storage Site." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 53. PNNL-SA-116762. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.022
  • Harvey O.R., N. Qafoku, K.J. Cantrell, M.J. Wilkins, and C.F. Brown. 2016. "Methanogenesis-induced pH-Eh shifts drives aqueous metal(loid) mobility in sulfide mineral systems under CO2 enriched conditions." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 173. PNNL-SA-105773. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2015.11.002
  • Neeway J.J., N. Qafoku, B.D. Williams, M. Snyder, C.F. Brown, and E.M. Pierce. 2016. "Evidence of Technetium and Iodine from a Sodalite-Bearing Ceramic Waste Form." Applied Geochemistry 66. PNNL-SA-101989. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2015.12.017
  • Williams B.D., J.J. Neeway, M. Snyder, M.E. Bowden, J.E. Amonette, B.W. Arey, and E.M. Pierce, et al. 2016. "Mineral Assemblage Transformation of a Metakaolin-based Waste Form After Geopolymer Encapsulation." Journal of Nuclear Materials 473. PNNL-SA-98733. doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.12.023

2015

  • Lawter A.R., N. Qafoku, G. Wang, H. Shao, and C.F. Brown. 2015. "Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: I. Experimental Data." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44, no. 2016:323-333. PNNL-SA-107057. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.07.009
  • Lawter A.R., N. Qafoku, H. Shao, D.H. Bacon, and C.F. Brown. 2015. "Evaluating Impacts of CO2 and CH4 Gas Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: Fate of As and Cd." Frontiers in Environmental Science 3. PNNL-SA-110137. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2015.00049
  • Qafoku N., L. Zheng, D.H. Bacon, A.R. Lawter, and C.F. Brown. 2015. A Critical Review of the Impacts of Leaking CO2 Gas and Brine on Groundwater Quality. PNNL-24897. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A Critical Review of the Impacts of Leaking CO2 Gas and Brine on Groundwater Quality
  • Shao H., N. Qafoku, A.R. Lawter, M.E. Bowden, and C.F. Brown. 2015. "Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on Groundwater Quality." Environmental Science & Technology 49, no. 13:8202-8209. PNNL-SA-108351. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b01004
  • Wang G., N. Qafoku, A.R. Lawter, M.E. Bowden, O. Harvey, E.C. Sullivan, and C.F. Brown. 2015. "Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to an Unconfined Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44, no. 2016:310-322. PNNL-SA-96349. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.07.002
  • Zheng L., N. Qafoku, A.R. Lawter, G. Wang, H. Shao, and C.F. Brown. 2015. "Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: II. Modeling Results." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 44, no. 2016:300-309. PNNL-SA-106872. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.07.001

2014

  • Brown C.F., B.M. Rapko, R.J. Serne, J.H. Westsik, A. Cozzi, K.M. Fox, and K.M. Fox, et al. 2014. "Assessment of the Cast Stone Low-Temperature Waste Form Technology Coupled with Technetium Removal - 14379." In Waste Management Symposia (WM2014): 40 Years of meeting Global Radioactive Waste Management Challenges, March 2-6, 2014, Phoenix, Arizona, 1, 722-733. Tucson, Arizona:WM Symposia. PNNL-SA-99494.
  • Cantrell K.J., and C.F. Brown. 2014. "Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 27. PNNL-SA-100723. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.05.009
  • Carroll S.A., E. Keating, K. Mansoor, Z. Dai, Y. Sun, W. Trainor-Guitton, and C.F. Brown, et al. 2014. "Key Factors for Determining Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 29. PNNL-SA-103266. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.07.007
  • Last G.V., C.J. Murray, Y. Bott, and C.F. Brown. 2014. "Threshold Values for Identification of Contamination Predicted by Reduced-Order Models." Energy Procedia 63. PNNL-SA-105259. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.389
  • McGrail B.P., F.A. Spane, J.E. Amonette, C.J. Thompson, and C.F. Brown. 2014. "Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project." Energy Procedia 63. PNNL-SA-107959. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.316
  • Neeway J.J., N. Qafoku, B.D. Williams, K.A. Rod, M.E. Bowden, C.F. Brown, and E.M. Pierce. 2014. "Performance of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions." Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 131. PNNL-SA-96489. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.10.008
  • Qafoku N., A.R. Lawter, H. Shao, G. Wang, and C.F. Brown. 2014. "Evaluating impacts of CO2 gas intrusion into a confined sandstone aquifer: Experimental results." Energy Procedia 63. PNNL-SA-105260. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.355
  • Um W., H. Jung, S. Kabilan, C.A. Fernandez, and C.F. Brown. 2014. "Geochemical and geomechanical effects on wellbore cement fractures." Energy Procedia 63. PNNL-SA-105137. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.613

2013

  • Harvey O.R., N. Qafoku, K.J. Cantrell, G. Lee, J.E. Amonette, and C.F. Brown. 2013. "Geochemical Implications of Gas Leakage Associated with Geologic CO2 Storage - A Qualitative Review." Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 1:23-36. PNNL-SA-83207. doi:10.1021/es3029457
  • Last G.V., C.J. Murray, C.F. Brown, P.D. Jordan, and M. Sharma. 2013. No-Impact Threshold Values for NRAP's Reduced Order Models. PNNL-22077. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. No-Impact Threshold Values for NRAP's Reduced Order Models
  • Neeway J.J., N. Qafoku, C.F. Brown, and R.A. Peterson. 2013. "Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization." In Proceedings of the Annual Waste Management Symposium (WM2013): International Collaboration and Continuous Improvement, February 24-28, 2013, Phoenix, Arizona, 3, 2268-2275, Paper No. 13400. Tucson, Arizona:WM Symposia. PNNL-SA-91992.
  • Qafoku N., C.F. Brown, G. Wang, E.C. Sullivan, A.R. Lawter, O.R. Harvey, and M. Bowden. 2013. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers. PNNL-22420. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

2012

  • Harvey O.R., N. Qafoku, K.J. Cantrell, and C.F. Brown. 2012. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review. PNNL-21550. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review
  • Heald S.M., K.M. Krupka, and C.F. Brown. 2012. "Incorporation of Pertechnetate and Perrhenate into Corroded Steel Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy." Radiochimica Acta 100, no. 4:243-253. PNNL-SA-73732. doi:10.1524/ract.2012.1912
  • McGrail B.P., C.J. Freeman, C.F. Brown, E.C. Sullivan, S.K. White, S. Reddy, and R. Garber, et al. 2012. "Overcoming Business Model Uncertainty in a Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration Project: Case Study at the Boise White Paper Mill." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 9. PNWD-SA-9733. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.03.009
  • Neeway J.J., N. Qafoku, B.D. Williams, M.M. Valenta, E.A. Cordova, S.C. Strandquist, and D.C. Dage, et al. 2012. "Single Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) Test Results of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms used for LAW Immobilization." In Waste Management Symposium (WM 2012): Improving the Future in Waste Management, February 26 - March 1, 2012, Phoenix, Arizona, Paper No. 12252. Tucson, Arizona:Waste Management Symposia, Inc. PNNL-SA-84289.
  • Neeway J.J., N. Qafoku, J.H. Westsik, C.F. Brown, C. Jantzen, and E.M. Pierce. 2012. "Radionuclide and contaminant immobilization in the fluidized bed steam reforming waste products." In Radioactive Waste, edited by RA Rahman. 239-262. Rijeka:InTech Europe. PNNL-SA-83289.

2010

  • Daniel R.C., J.M. Billing, J.R. Bontha, C.F. Brown, P.W. Eslinger, B.D. Hanson, and J.L. Huckaby, et al. 2010. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale. PNNL-18498 Rev 1; WTP-RPT-185 Rev 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale
  • Rapko B.M., P.P. Schonewill, C.F. Brown, P.W. Eslinger, M.S. Fountain, T.S. Hausmann, and J.L. Huckaby, et al. 2010. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results. PNNL-18500 Rev 1; WTP-RPT-188 Rev 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results
  • Riley R.G., J.E. Szecsody, D.S. Sklarew, A.V. Mitroshkov, P.M. Gent, C.F. Brown, and C.J. Thompson. 2010. "Desorption Behavior of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform in contaminated Low Organic Carbon Aquifer Sediments." Chemosphere 79, no. 8:807-813. PNNL-SA-47350.
  • Um W., J.P. Icenhower, C.F. Brown, R.J. Serne, Z. Wang, C.J. Dodge, and A.J. FRANCIS. 2010. "Characterization of Uranium-Contaminated Sediments From Beneath A Nuclear Waste Storage Tank From Hanford, Washington: Implications for Contaminant Transport and Fate." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, no. 4:1363-1380. PNNL-SA-69647.

2009

  • Brown C.F., R.J. Serne, J.G. Catalano, K.M. Krupka, and J.P. Icenhower. 2009. "Mineralization of contaminant uranium and leach rates in sediments from Hanford, Washington." Applied Geochemistry 25, no. 1:97-104. PNNL-SA-57729. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2009.10.005
  • Daniel R.C., J.M. Billing, J.R. Bontha, C.F. Brown, P.W. Eslinger, B.D. Hanson, and J.L. Huckaby, et al. 2009. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale. PNNL-18498. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of Filter Performance at PEP and CUF Scale
  • Kurath D.E., B.D. Hanson, M.J. Minette, D.L. Baldwin, B.M. Rapko, L.A. Mahoney, and P.P. Schonewill, et al. 2009. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report. PNNL-18894; WTP-RPT-197 Rev 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report
  • Rapko B.M., C.F. Brown, P.W. Eslinger, M.S. Fountain, T.S. Hausmann, J.L. Huckaby, and B.D. Hanson, et al. 2009. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results. PNNL-18500. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results
  • Um W., M.J. Truex, M.M. Valenta, C. Iovin, I.V. Kutnyakov, H. Chang, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2009. Characterization of Sediments from the Soil Desiccation Pilot Test (SDPT) Site in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area. PNNL-18800. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Characterization of Sediments from the Soil Desiccation Pilot Test (SDPT) Site in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area
  • Um W., Z. Wang, R.J. Serne, B.D. Williams, C.F. Brown, C.J. Dodge, and A.J. FRANCIS. 2009. "Uranium Phases in Contaminated Sediments Below Hanford's U Tank Farm." Environmental Science & Technology 43, no. 12:4280-4286. PNNL-SA-65800. doi:10.1021/es900203r
  • Valenta M.M., K.N. Geiszler, B.N. Bjornstad, H.T. Schaef, and C.F. Brown. 2009. Tier II Analysis of Vadose Zone Sediments from UPRS 200-E-81 and 200-E-86. PNNL-18383. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Tier II Analysis of Vadose Zone Sediments from UPRS 200-E-81 and 200-E-86

2008

2007

2006

2005

  • Brown C.F., K.N. Geiszler, and T.S. Vickerman. 2005. "Extraction and Quantitative Analysis of Iodine in Solid and Solution Matrixes." Analytical Chemistry 77, no. 21:7062-7066. PNNL-SA-45389. doi:10.1021/ac050972v
  • Brown C.F., R.J. Serne, H.T. Schaef, B.A. Williams, M.M. Valenta, V.L. LeGore, and M.J. Lindberg, et al. 2005. Investigation of Accelerated Casing Corrosion in Two Wells at Waste Management Area A-AX. PNNL-15141. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Investigation of Accelerated Casing Corrosion in Two Wells at Waste Management Area A-AX
  • Brown C.F., R.J. Serne, K.M. Krupka, E.M. Pierce, and M.J. Lindberg. 2005. "Uranium Contamination at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site." In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (New Orleans, Louisiana; Jan 24-27, 2005), edited by Olfenbuttel, Robert F.; White, P.J. B4-08. Columbus, Ohio:Battelle Press. PNNL-SA-46616.
  • Deutsch W.J., K.M. Krupka, K.J. Cantrell, C.F. Brown, M.J. Lindberg, H.T. Schaef, and S.M. Heald, et al. 2005. Advances in Geochemical Testing of Key Contaminants in Residual Hanford Tank Waste. PNNL-15372. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Advances in Geochemical Testing of Key Contaminants in Residual Hanford Tank Waste
  • Deutsch W.J., K.M. Krupka, M.J. Lindberg, K.J. Cantrell, C.F. Brown, and H.T. Schaef. 2005. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data. PNNL-15187. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Hanford Tank 241-C-106: Residual Waste Contaminant Release Model and Supporting Data
  • Riley R.G., D.S. Sklarew, C.F. Brown, P.M. Gent, J.E. Szecsody, A.V. Mitroshkov, and C.J. Thompson. 2005. Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Partition Coefficients Derived from Aqueous Desorption of Contaminated Hanford Sediments. PNNL-15239. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Partition Coefficients Derived from Aqueous Desorption of Contaminated Hanford Sediments
  • Saripalli P., C.F. Brown, and M.J. Lindberg. 2005. "Development of Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) for a Quantitative Characterization of Microbial Mass in Flow Systems." Research in Microbiology 156. PNNL-SA-46823.
  • Um W., R.J. Serne, B.N. Bjornstad, H.T. Schaef, C.F. Brown, V.L. Legore, and K.N. Geiszler, et al. 2005. Characterization of 200-UP-1 Aquifer Sediments and Results of Sorption-Desorption Tests Using Spiked Uncontaminated Groundwater. PNNL-15502. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Characterization of 200-UP-1 Aquifer Sediments and Results of Sorption-Desorption Tests Using Spiked Uncontaminated Groundwater

2004

2003

2002

  • Icenhower J.P., B.P. McGrail, D.M. Strachan, R.D. Scheele, V.L. Legore, E.A. Cordova, and J.L. Steele, et al. 2002. "Experimental Determination of the Dissolution Kinetics of Plutonium- and Uranium-Bearing Ceramics at 90 degrees C." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, edited by B.P. McGrail and G.A. Cragnolino, 713, 433-440 paper no. JJ11.38. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-31781.
  • Icenhower J.P., B.P. McGrail, W.J. Weber, B.D. Begg, N.J. Hess, E.A. Cordova, and J.L. Steele, et al. 2002. "Dissolution of A2Ti2O7 (A = Y3?, Gd3?, or Lu3?) Pyrochlore by Experiment at pH = 2, T = 90 C: Evidence for Solubility Control Using a Linear Free Energy Model." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, edited by BP McGrail and GA Cragnolino, 713, 397-403 paper no. JJ6.2. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-36247.
  • Liu C., Y.A. Gorby, J.M. Zachara, J.K. Fredrickson, and C.F. Brown. 2002. "Reduction Kinetics of Fe(III), Co(III), U(VI), Cr(VI), and Tc(VII) in Cultures of Dissimilatory Metal-reducing Bacteria." Biotechnology and Bioengineering 80, no. 6:637-649. PNNL-SA-35327.
  • Serne R.J., B.N. Bjornstad, H.T. Schaef, B.A. Williams, D.C. Lanigan, D.G. Horton, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples. PNNL-13757-1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples
  • Serne R.J., C.F. Brown, H.T. Schaef, E.M. Pierce, M.J. Lindberg, Z. Wang, and P.L. Gassman, et al. 2002. 300 Area Uranium Leach and Adsorption Project. PNNL-14022. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 300 Area Uranium Leach and Adsorption Project
  • Serne R.J., G.V. Last, G.W. Gee, H.T. Schaef, D.C. Lanigan, C.W. Lindenmeier, and M.J. Lindberg, et al. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-45 Near BX-102 in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area. PNNL-14083. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-45 Near BX-102 in the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area
  • Serne R.J., G.V. Last, H.T. Schaef, D.C. Lanigan, C.W. Lindenmeier, C.C. Ainsworth, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 41-09-39 in the S-SX Waste Management Area. PNNL-13757-3. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 41-09-39 in the S-SX Waste Management Area
  • Serne R.J., G.V. Last, H.T. Schaef, D.C. Lanigan, C.W. Lindenmeier, C.C. Ainsworth, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area. PNNL-13757-4. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area
  • Serne R.J., H.T. Schaef, B.N. Bjornstad, D.C. Lanigan, G.W. Gee, C.W. Lindenmeier, and R.E. Clayton, et al. 2002. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-W23-19 [SX -115] in the S-SX Waste Management Area. PNNL-13757-2. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-W23-19 [SX -115] in the S-SX Waste Management Area.
  • Strachan D.M., R.D. Scheele, A.E. Kozelisky, R.L. Sell, H.T. Schaef, M.J. O'Hara, and C.F. Brown, et al. 2002. "Radiation Damage in Titanate Ceramics Used for Plutonium Immobilization." In Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXV, 713, 461-468. Warrendale, Pennsylvania:Materials Research Society. PNNL-SA-38324.

2001

  • Fredrickson J.K., J.M. Zachara, R.K. Kukkadapu, Y.A. Gorby, S.C. Smith, and C.F. Brown. 2001. "Biotransformation of Ni-Substituted Hydrous Ferric Oxide by an Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterium." Environmental Science & Technology 35, no. 4:703-712. PNNL-SA-33559.
  • Liu C., J.M. Zachara, Y.A. Gorby, J.E. Szecsody, and C.F. Brown. 2001. "Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) and Sorption/Precipitation of Fe(II) on Shewanella putrefaciens Strain CN32." Environmental Science & Technology 35, no. 7:1385-1393. PNNL-SA-32595.
  • Strachan D.M., R.D. Scheele, J.P. Icenhower, A.E. Kozelisky, R.L. Sell, V.L. Legore, and H.T. Schaef, et al. 2001. The Status of Radiation Damage Experiments. PNNL-13721. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The Status of Radiation Damage Experiments

Subsurface Science & Technology